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Some Thoughts on “Peak” Foliage

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Presque Isle River
Porcupine Mountains
Michigan Upper Peninsula
Copyright Andy Richards 1997

Nearly every year, about this time of year, I have posted something about the coming fall foliage season. It is no secret that I am a bit of a foliage “geek.” The majority of my dedicated photography trips over the years have sought a location to shoot fall foliage, and have generally been from late September through October. My ebook, Photographing Vermont’s Fall Foliage; Where to Find the Iconic Shots is clearly all about foliage photography. The majority of the illustrations in my Michigan ebook, Photographing The Michigan U.P., while more broadly intended, are of fall foliage scenes. I have traveled multiples time to Vermont and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, as well as Maine, , West Virginia, Virginia, and New Mexico for the specific purpose of shooting fall foliage.

One popular on-line dictionary has several different definitions of the word, “peak.”

A recent post on a media page I visit regularly, included a photograph, illustrating “peak” foliage. It was a nice, colorful image, but I would not have described it as peak – or even near-peak. The post got me thinking about the concept of “peak” foliage. Every year, this term is tossed around on internet sites, including photography sites and “foliage progession map” sites. Having spent much time planning and thought about “foliage” photography, and, having written and commented on it on many ocassions over the past 15 years, I get a number of questions about “peak” foliage conditions. The most common, of course, go something like this: I am planning to be in Vermont/Michigan for a week during (date). Will the foliage be at, or near peak at that time? My answer is nearly always equivocal: “it depends on what you mean by ‘peak’.”

Hiawatha NF Color Sections
Michigan U.P.
Copyright 2012 Andy Richards

One popular on-line dictionary has several different definitions of the word, “peak.” One of them is: “a point in a curve or on a graph, or a value of a physical quantity, higher than those around it.” This may be a more objective, measurable definition than we may want in an artistic setting such as photography. I read this to mean that point where everything leading up to it, and everything following it, is not peak. By my thinking, this definition would apply to foliage immediately before it begins to turn brown, dry up and fall. That probably fits my own definition of “peak” best. I recall scenes – especially growing up as a young man in Vermont where I was in it every day for a number of seasons, where the leaves were almost all spectacularly colored, with no remaining green leaves, and nearly 100% still on the trees. In reality, this is impossible. There will always be stages and most always, leaves on the ground, which in most cases, I think is a positive anyway. But my point is that “peak,” under this definition, is that instant immediately before things turn and go downhill. It is the way I have always viewed “peak.” And I think most progression maps and official foliage “predictors” would agree with that definition. My own “peak” definition is perhaps better illustrated by the 2012 Hiawatha National Forest image, again made in the Michigan Upper Peninsula.

“Backyard” Foliage
Saginaw, MI
Copyright 2014 Andy Richards

But a second definition, may really describe “peak” more accurately: “the point of highest activity, quality, or achievement.” This is a more subjective definition. And for our purposes, it is probably the sounder one. I read this to mean that “peak” is what I think “peak” is. When I look at a scene, I look for the most “productive” iteration of that scene. When I have the luxury of re-visiting a foliage location multiple times in the same season, it means I can make a judgment about what is the most visually pleasing blend of color and undeveloped foliage. Most times, though, I have had to make a judgment at the time I arrived at the scene.

Our search for “peak” may blind us to the image that is right there in front of us

The opening image was taken at “Lake of the Clouds,” in the far western end of the Michigan Upper Peninsula. I was there in early October, hoping to find “peak” foliage conditions under my own (admittedly nebulous) definition. I had seen numerous examples of  the lake, which can appear to be floating up in the clouds under certain conditions, in full color foliage. That is what I envisioned. But this year, color development was obviously in its very early stages. There was very little color around the lake. Had I left it at that, I would have missed one of my favorite fall images (and one which has been my most successful over the years in terms of sales). I doubt it would have the same impact if all the leaves were fully turned (or at “peak” by my own definition). But in this case the image better fits the second definition. I think it was absolutely the point of highest activity, quality, or achievement.

Vermont Covered Bridge
A preview of the fall foliage show to come
Copyright Andy Richards 2005

Does any of this really matter? Probably not (which is why my blog description includes “musings” by me). In the end, what really matters is if the image is pleasing to me. But it may be instructive in answering the question posed by travelers about where and when the “peak” foliage is. We will always continue to see the term “peak” being used to describe fall foliage. But as photographers, we really shouldn’t get all hung up on a term. We should try to “see” images that are out there.  And our search for “peak” may blind us to images that are right there in front of us.

Falling leaves signal that the end of the season is very near.
Copyright Andy Richards 2007

 

 

 

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An American (or four) in Paris

(Left-Clicking on an image opens it in a new window, bigger and with better resolution)

Eiffel Tower
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Ah, Paris! It conjures that accordian music and a bustling city (with some Gershwin in the background). And food. It was all there. Our next port of call, LeHavre, was just a short ride accross the English Channel. We arose and left the train early, for another train ride – this one 2 hours.

Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

This cruise, as I have noted previously, was rather unusual for us in that the ship docked overnight in 3 of our ports of call (Dublin, Cobh, and LeHavre). In our experience this usually happens, if at all, in only one port. In this case, not only did the ship dock overnight, but it did not depart LeHavre until midnight of the second day (technically you might even say it docked for two nights). We took full advantage of this time, booking an overnight stay in a Paris Hotel, and we had most of two very full days in Paris.

Champs-‘Elysees
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

I have learned from travel in other countries, that shooting from a moving train is essentially impossible, and I have really given up trying. So all I could do was enjoy the French countryside as we headed toward Paris.  And the bulk of the trip was countryside, with many small, and very well-kept farms. I wanted to stop the train a number of times and just get off and shoot. Maybe someday.

Paris, France

Much like our London experience, less than 2 days is really not long enough to see Paris. There is just too much. Several days would be easy to fill.

The Louvre
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

But we were a little better organized, here, with pre-purchased tickets to the top of the Eiffel Tower, a walking tour around the Notre Dame Cathedral and neighborhood, and plans to use two forms of public transportation which really worked well for us – the “Hop on – Hop off bus and boats.”  While we again only scratched the surface, I think we were able to see the main points of interest we had, including the Cathedral, the Louvre (outside only), the Eiffel Tower, Champs-‘Elysees and the Arc de Triomphe.

Arc de Triomphe
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The Eiffel Tower is probably the central icon of Paris, and it is one of those landmarks that is rarely out of sight, wherever in Paris you might be

I overdid the Eiffel Tower. I don’t know how many images of it I made, but I know more than I really needed to.  We saw it from the river, from the tour bus, and from various points on the ground. And I shot it. I shot it at night and I shot it again during the daytime. The Eiffel Tower is probably the central icon of Paris, and it is one of those landmarks that is rarely out of sight, wherever in Paris you might be. So I had lots of opportunities. We knew we would be on the grounds of the tower the first evening – we were up on the top for the sunset – an unforgettable experience. But I had also done some research on vantage points to shoot it from. One of the best turned out to be Place du Trocadero, a plaza directly across the Seine from the tower.

Eiffel Tower
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

From the grounds, it was difficult to shoot. The same dynamics as I mentioned in London were at play here. It is a massive structure, and perspective is just impossible up so close. But there were still some interesting and perhaps dramatic images here, especially at night.

Eiffel Tower
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

As we left the grounds the evening we were there, I saw a nice reflection opportunity. In another life (or on another trip), I would like to go back with a tripod and better equipment and explore this a bit. But I was happy enough for handheld, point-and-shoot results in this case.

Eiffel Tower
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The next day, I shot the tower again; this time from the Seine. There are more, but these are probably enough for now 🙂

Eiffel Tower
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Eiffel Tower
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Next to the Eiffel Tower, the one thing I wanted to see most was the famed Cathedral Notre-Dame de-Paris, with its gothic architecture and 850 year plus, majestic wooden spires and roofline.

Catheral Notre Dame de_Paris
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The news of the fire on April 15th (just short weeks before our visit), destroying much of the old wooden infrastructure, including spire and rooflines that were made from wood timber construction, was heartbreaking to viewers around the world. I had been looking forward to seeing the inside and grounds. We were fortunate to get some good views from the exterior, but the interior is not accessible to the public at this point, and a large, opaque construction fence surrounds the entire grounds, so that only views from farther away are possible. I hope to return someday, and see the entire thing.

Catheral Notre Dame de_Paris
Under Reconstruction
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

What you can see of it It is still magnificent.

Catheral Notre Dame de_Paris
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

We met our walking tour guide at a small cafe in the neighborhood of the Cathedral. These tours are free (you can find them and similar tours in most cities). They are usually given by locally attending students, or members of local art, history or acting programs. Our experience has been that our – normally youthful – guides are enthusiastic, fun and very knowledgable of their subject. The normal treatment is to give them a gratuity, usually what you think appropriate. We have tried to be generous over the years, knowing they are usually young students and truly appreciating the value we get from the. I highly recommend that you seek these types of tours out and partake. We have never been disappointed.

Cafe Odette
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The Cathedral is on an island in the middle of The Seine. The cafe was on the mainland, on the south side of the river, known as “The Left Bank,” and directly across the main street is the Saint Severin Roman Catholic Church. Originally built in the 11th Century, the church is one of (if not the) oldest churches in Paris.

Saint Severin Church
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Saint Severin Church
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Originally built as a smaller church, in the Romanesque style, it was enlarged years later, and today had Romanesque and Goth styles combined. The interior, much of it believed to be authentic original construction, includes impressive arches and stained glass.

Saint Severin Church
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Saint Severin Church
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

After spending a few minutes in Saint Severin, we walked across the bridge to the front of Notre Dame. We learned that the Cathedral is not only a church. It is a neighborhood and much of the surroundings made up that neighborhood.

Catheral Notre Dame de_Paris
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The quiet little street in the image here could really be a quiet back street in almost any city in the world. But it happens to be in the famous Notre Dame neighborhood.

Notre Dame Cathedral Neighborhood
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

After our tour, we boarded one of the “Hop on – Hop off” bateaus (boats) for a cruise up and down the Seine. Making images off a moving boat is only slightly less challenging than from a moving train or vehicle. Nonetheless, you do have a bit more mobility, and I was able to make a few “keeper” images.

Paris from The Seine
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Paris from The Seine
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Île de la Cité
(Notre Dame) from The Seine
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The Louvre
from The Seine
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

T
The two days went by fast, and we were soon enough, boarding the train for the ride back to LeHavre and departure for Bruges. But there will be many memories of Paris, and anticipation of another visit in the not too distant future. One of the best memories will be being at the top of the world on the Eiffel Tower and seeing the sunset over that same Place du Trocadero that we had photographed the tower from earlier that afternoon.

Sunset over Paris
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

 

 

London (from Dover)

White Cliffs
Dover, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The “British Isles” Cruise, as I have mentioned, may have been a bit of a misnomer, as we really didn’t spend much time in what I would personally consider, Britain. “The British Isles” would include, in my view, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, Great Britain, and perhaps a couple of the smaller Islands in the vicinity. We were only in England during two days of the entire tour. The first day was Liverpool.

Port of Dover
Dover, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

This the second day, our port of call was Dover, a port at the far southeast part of the country, where the English Channel empties into the North Sea. The “White Cliffs of Dover,” said to be the official icon of England, and the inpiration for Vera Lynn’s song, made famous during WWII, were prominent while we remained in port. The white cliffs are said to be the first sight of England you see when you cross the English Channel, and Dover is on the English side of the narrowest part of the channel.

Perhaps unfortunately, we didn’t see much of Dover

Dover is a rather small seaside town but has a few things going for it. Because we had only one day – which we allocated totally to London, we really didn’t see Dover.  We took an early morning train from the quaint, but efficient Dover Train Station, to London. 20/20 hindsight is, of course, clairvoyant, and looking back we may have miscalculated at this port. When we planned the trip, 3 of the 4 of us had not been to London, and as it was only a 1-hour train ride, we felt that we really should use this opportunity to go there. What I did not appreciate is that you just cannot do London justice in a day – especially a very short day. We burned at least 2 hours on the train rides. Perhaps would have used our time better by staying in Dover and exploring the area. We later learned that there is a great military museum, as well as England’s largest Castle (nearby on the cliffs). If ever in Dover again, I suspect we will see some of those sights.

London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Not that London wasn’t great, and we certainly do not regret going.  But the whirlwind nature of our tour of the city really didn’t do it justice. London is a place that requires some time to see everything, and when we do it again, we will plan to spend at least several days there. We also booked – inadvertently – a rather odd tour for our time there. It was in interesting tour, but would have been one of the side tours we might do if we had more than one day on location. It did not afford much opportunity for photography, though there are certainly some things I would liked to have shot.

St. Pancras Train Station and Hotel
London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

When doing my post-processing, I realized I only kept and processed some 26 images, and of them, only about a dozen different subjects. I am pretty happy with what I did get. The capital and largest city in England (indeed in the UK), London straddles the River Thames, which ultimately empties into the North Sea to its east. As might be expected, London archtecture is generally massive and very impressive. There is no one dominating style and we saw classic mixed with modern. The Great Fire of 1666 destroyed much of London, including the entire Medieval City of London inside the Roman Gates. Architect Christopher Wren was responsible for a great many rebuilt structures, including some 52 churches (perhaps the most famous amoung them; St. Paul’s Cathedral). I think another trip to London should incorporate a tour of the Christopher Wren buildings.

St. Pancras Train Station and Hotel
London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The St. Pancras Train Station and Hotel (where we began our day in London) was originally designed by William Henry Barlow and construction completed in the late 1800’s.

St. Pancras Train Station and Hotel
London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Downton Abbey fans may recognize the magnificent staircase inside the St. Pancras Hotel (like Game of Thrones, I have never watched an episode).

St. Pancras Staircase
London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

St. Pancras Staircase
London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

St. Pancras Staircase
London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

London gets it name from Londinium, the ancient Roman name for the Roman settlement that is still buried under central London. It is pretty certain that civilization dates back much earlier than the Roman Empire. Beginning with the conquering of the land by William, Duke of Normandy, the Normans probably most influenced the history of Modern England, and eventually, much of the United Kingdom.

St. Bartholemew’s Gatehouse
London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The story of Henry VIII, (1509-47), a descendent of William, his split with the Roman Catholic Church (when Pope Clement VII refused to approve the annulment of Henry’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon) and his subsequent creation of The Church of England, in 1534, making himself the head of the Church) is well-known. St. Bartholomew’s Church is the oldest Roman Catholic Church in London, and one of few examples of Tudor London, surviving the Great Fire. The main, old church, built in 1123, was mostly demolished by order of Henry VIII. The church that is there today is the result of a restoration between 1887 and 1928. The arch, shown here, once the entrance to the church, is said to be original, except for the timbered structure on the upper facade, which was probably redone sometime in the 16th century.

Smithfield Meat Market
London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Part of our tour involved seeing some currently standing buildings near the St. Bartholomew Gate, on Little Britain Street. Our tour was really focused on some historical aspects of London and not really on the big-picture, famous sights. But I was able to make an image of the entrance to the rather well-known (at least to us meat-lovers) Smith Field Market, just up the street from where we were stopped.

Guildhall Art Gallery
London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The Guildhall buildings were massive with many buildings and a large square, and was also a mix of modern architecture with some classic flares. The image of the Art Gallery is an example of much more modern lines.

Royal Courts of Justice
London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Our guide, at some point learned that I was a recently retired attorney, and that my wife spent the bulk of her career working in the court systems, and decided to make an impromptu stop at the Royal Courts of Justice, a massive building taking up at least 2 city blocks, and housing mostly, what we would call “appellate courts” here in the U.S. With my little camera,and on the ground viewpoint, it was difficult (like many of the buildings in London) to do the building justice – pun absolutely intended 🙂 . Of course – and unfortunately – photography was forbidden inside the building.

Royal Courts of Justice
London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

We crossed the Thames on several ocassions during our tour, inevitably seeing different bridges over the river. The most eye-catching, perhaps, was London’s Tower Bridge (often mistakenly referred to as “London Bridge,” which of course, isn’t even in London any longer). It is one of those majestic sites that draws the eye. It wasn’t really part of our guide’s planned tour, but we cajoled him into finding us a place to get out and photograph it.

Tower Bridge
London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Our spot was a little park almost directly under the span, and as other photographers might imagine, photographing it was a challenge. My little Sony has a 24mm equivalent at the wide end – just not wide enough for this kind of photography. My final image here, was made with the able assistance of the transform perps

Tower Bridge
London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

At the end of the tour, our guide drove us by Buckingham Palace. Again, it was not in his plan for us, but we pushed to have him drop us off for at least an on-the-ground photo or two. We were there only very briefly, and I would like an opportunity on another occasion to walk the grounds and spend some time. Again, the massive structure makes small camera, low viewpoint shooting problematic. But I made the best with what I had.

Buckingham Palace
London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The gold guilded gate ornaments may be the most impressive feature of this particular building.

Buckingham Palace
London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Buckingham Palace
London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

we finished our day in London, having only a couple hours left, with a ride on the London Eye. It offers a great, high perpective on the city of London. Working with reflections in the glass enclosures, presented its challenges, but I thought that all-in-all, I got some nice images and it was truly worth the ride.

The London Eye
London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Prior to our trip, I had read that one of London’s true icons, Big Ben, is currently under construction, not due for completion until 2021. I was able to get a nice image of British Parliament, with the famous clock tower at one end. But it is clearly under construction (in fact, I believe only one face even has the clock face visible). Nor did we ever hear the famous bells during our day.

British Parliament and Big Ben
London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The “birds-eye” vantage point of the London Eye did allow for some nice, long-view images of London as it sits on the Thames.

London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The London images were kind of a smattering of things we saw during a much too short visit. There certainly were things we missed that we really need to see: The Tower of London, Westminster Abbey, Westminster Palace, Piccadilly Circus, Savile Row, Trafalgar Square, St. Margarets Church, and …. well you get the picture (but I didn’t). See what I did there?  🙂 . I assume we will be back.

Day Two in County Cork

Tourism; Celebrity Cruises
Cobh, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Our overnight stay in Cobh, gave us the unique opportunity to plan two days. We knew exploring Cobh would be a day’s activity, and it made sense for us to “play it by ear,” and do that on our first day, depending on our arrival time and knowing we had later flexibility. I had made the most of my shooting the day before, and as we had an early appointment that morning, I elected not to try to go ashore for the early morning sun. But I was able to make some images from the ship. The military (naval, I think) facility was actually an island directly across from our stateroom balcony.

Military Facility
Cobh, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

I work hard most of the time to keep people either completely out of the image, or just a small – perspective-giving – part of the image. But the opening image of the camera-wielding tourist (no, not a selfie 🙂 ) underscores that as hard as I work to isolate images and find quiet places, tourism is a huge business and there are very few places like this in the world where there aren’t people – from all over the world – everywhere.

Blarney Castle
Cork, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The two primary attractions for us in County Cork (after Cobh) were Cork City and Blarney Castle. Unfortunately, we did not do Cork the way we should have and learned later that we had missed a very neat part of the city. We did find a couple local pubs, a candy factory, and a nice church.

Blarney Castle
Cork, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

But Blarney Castle was our primary destination. My wife has become a pretty seasoned and expert travel planner, and based on her research, we knew there would be long lines to get into this very popular attraction. And, once inside, there would be additionally long lines to climb to the top, and to kiss the famous “Blarney Stone.” Her intel told us the best plan was to get to the Castle just before it opened. We didn’t want to depend on the train or finding our way to the castle from the Cork station, so she arranged for a taxi to pick us up at the Cobh port and take us to Blarney Castle. It was a well-informed decision, and we only waited about 10 minutes before we were inside the grounds. We headed straight for the turret and there was no wait to climb the steep, circular stone stairs to the top, and only about a 5 minute wait for the one person in our group who actually kissed the stone. I am told that one of the “blessings” the stone gives is “the gift of gab.” Most who know me will attest to the fact that I didn’t need that blessing :-). Of course, in order to see and kiss it you have to lay on your back while two “spotters” hold you nearly upside down, from a considerable height.

The Blarney Stone
Blarney Castle
Cork, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

From the top of the castle, the vantage point gave a pretty good “birds-eye” view (see what I did there? 🙂 ) of the surrounding countryside.

Views from Blarney Castle
Cork, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The details and construction of these thousand-plus year old castles is amazing, right down to the use of stained glass windows.

Stained Glass
Blarney Castle
Cork, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

We spent a few hours walking the grounds, which included a beautiful Gothic Stone house (which is actually owned and occasionally occupied by a private family), nice gardens, stables, and lawns. I was able to make (I think) some nice images of the grounds and the castle.

Home on Blarney Castle Grounds
Blarney Castle
Cork, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Gothic Home on Grounds
Blarney Castle
Cork, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

As I noted at the beginning, we really didn’t get to see much of the city of Cork. We only really had a couple hours following the Blarney Castle tour to get back to the ship. Our taxi driver happened to know the owners of a confectionary and took us there, just a few blocks from the city center. Unfortunately, the owner – though there – was not actively making candy at the time. After buying some sweets, we made our way back to the city center.

Linehan Confectioners
Cork, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

We walked around a bit. It was like many others that we have visited, with pubs, coffee shops (of course, a Starbucks), and other touristy things. We learned later that there was a city tour of part of the old city of Cork that was pretty nice. Perhaps next trip.

Cork, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Returning to the ship was a bit of an adventure. The walk to the rail station turned out to be much longer than we had anticipated, and we then had to figure out which train to board. Fortunately the crowds were small and we were in the company of lots of other folks heading the same direction. It was raining steadily when we arrived, and fortunately, the train platform was almost directly across the dock from the ship. Another good day in Ireland, and our last. We would head now to London, Paris, Bruges and Amsterdam.

As we returned to the ship the previous night, I was able to make a nice image of the approach to our Cruise Ship mooring. Tourism has certainly become an economic boon to many places and has grown (in some cases out of control) exponentially in the last 10 years. Cobh was clearly no exception and they made it clear that they welcomed the influx.

Cruise Port
Cobh, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

In my mind Ireland was the best part of the trip and even a little bit magical. I have little doubt that we will return to Ireland one day very soon!

 

The Irish Adventure Continues; Cobh

Cobh, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Our short, but eventful trip to Liverpool over, we headed back to Ireland for an overnight stay in County Cork. Cobh is the port nearest Cork City. Having now spent many days exploring parts of the Emerald Isle, in 2014 and on this trip, I have yet to find anyplace in this part of the world that isn’t simply remarkable. And as beautiful as we found Northern Ireland, Cobh may well have been its nearest rival.

I have yet to find anyplace in The Emerald Isle that isn’t simply remarkably photogenic

This was the second of three overnight stops on this cruise – an unusual event for us. Generally one overnight seems to be the norm, and it is often at the beginning or end of the cruise. So this was a bonus, allowing us to do some additional things. Our first day, we mostly walked around Cobh, taking in some local pubs, the Titanic Exhibit, the scenery, and a local restaurant for dinner.

Cork/Cobh Pilot Boat
Cobh, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Cobh is at once, touristy and quaint and – much like Galway was in 2014 – very photogenic. It began with our sunrise entrance into the harbor, where from the ship deck, we got spectacular views of the bucolic Irish countryside. To our east, as we entered the harbor, I was treated to farms and a wonderful lighthouse at the head, in the early morning fog.

Light House
Cobh Port, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

I have often commented here that traveling by cruise ship has its pros and cons. One of the pros, is the vantage point we often get from the ship deck, both entering and departing harbors, and often while docked, as can be seen from the unique vantage point in the opening image. Cobh is a great example, and we were able to view it as the early morning sun did its thing.

Lighthouse
Cobh Port, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

But once you go ashore, you see that there is a lot see and to photograph.

Tanker Dock
Cobh Port, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The little town of Cobh is barely two main streets, built into the side of the hills along the seaport. Catering to tourists and visitors, there is a train to Cork (the major city in County Cork, where Cobh lies), and restaurants along the quay.

Cobh, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The downtown center has a few lively pubs, and the buildings lining the street are quaint, but colorful. Like any place relying on tourism, there are a number of closed up buildings, but all is well-kept.

Cobh, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Cobh, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Like I almost always do, I did some pre-trip research and had at least one specific image I wanted to make. I know that an image like the row houses, which is basically the first image you will see if you “GOOGLE” “Cobh, Ireland,” is the hackneyed iconic image. I have many times been (correctly) urged to “make my own image.” Well, I kind of did :-). I looked at the row houses from many different viewpoints as I hiked up and down the steep hills.

“Deck of Cards”
Row Houses
Cobh, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

“Deck of Cards” Row Houses
Cobh, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

I finally nearly gave up, but stopped a very friendly lady on the street, walking with her grandson and asked her about the spot the image is made. The people of Ireland are absolutely the most friendly people on earth, by the way. She told me it was right on the street in front of the houses. Well I thought I had tried that, but she told me I had not gone far enough and that there was a little (unmarked) park in the middle of the street. I went back, saw the entrance, walked in, and turn around. And, like so many of these iconic images, there it was! Local – or experienced knowledge counts. She also told me that the row houses are referred to as “The Deck of Cards.”

“Deck of Cards”
Row Houses
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

“Deck of Cards”
Row Houses
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Along the way, I found some other nice views of the area, including The Bishop’s Residence.

Bishop’s Residence
Cobh, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Even though Cobh appears to be a busy little seaport town, and our cruise ship had just unloaded some 2,000 plus additional inhabitants, it was surprisingly quiet, once you ventured off the main square.

Cobh Waterfront
Cobh, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

As is often the case, the showcase architecture of the town was the Roman Catholic Church up the hill; St. Colman’s Cathedral (a/k/a Cobh Cathedral). It can be photographed from several viewpoints. As most here know, I generally carry the diminutive little (redundant much? 🙂 ) Sony x100iv as my travel camera.

St. Colman’s Cathedral
Cobh, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

One of its shortcomings is that there is a limit at both ends (24 – 70 equivalent). Another is that it is really not made for architectural imagery, and I often find myself liberally applying perspective corrections in Photoshop. So though these may not be the “seen” images, they are still illustrative of some pretty impressive Gothic architecture.

St. Colman’s Cathedral
Cobh, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

St. Colman’s Cathedral
Cobh, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Benches outside of
St. Colman’s Cathedral
Cobh, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Back in town, we had tickets to the Titanic Exhibit. Registered in Liverpool, built in Belfast, the reputed final stop of the RMS Titanic was Cobh. The exibit was short and interesting.

Titanic Exhibit
Cobh, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The museum has a picture of the rear of the Titanic in the drydock we saw in Belfast. The 3 screws are massive.

RMS Titanic
Cobh, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

There were 3 classes of passenger on all the White Star Line ships: First Class, Second Class and Third Class. Inside the museum, there were replicas of staterooms and the general room, occupied by third class passengers. The capacity for third class was about 1000 people, so you can see the rooms must have been pretty crowded.

Third Class Accommodations
Titanic
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

“General Room”
Titanic
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

First Class Accomodations
Titanic
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

We used the Rob Roy Pub as our guide point and meeting place when we split our group a couple times. They were obviously ready to welcome us.

Rob Roy Pub
Cobh, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Celebrity Reflection Welcome Sign;
Rob Roy Pub
Cobh, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Walking back to the ship, we were able to continue to see nice views of this great little town. Our cruise ship in the background gives some perspective of the approach.

Cobh, Ireland
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Liverpool; But it REALLY IS About The Beatles

Fab 4 Beatles Tour Car Liverpool, England Copyright Andy Richards 2019

In the previous post, I illustrated some of the normal parts of the impressive British City of Liverpool, and tried to set a historical context. While it was for a time, historically, considered the “New York” of Europe, Liverpool’s size is really more like Minneapolis, MN, or Kansas City, MO. It had – to me – a U.S. mid-western city “feel.” And I could envision the 4 young men who would turn the music world on end, as having grown up in Minneapolis, Kansas City, or even Detroit: small enough to know each other, but large enough to give it a city feel. Our visit to Liverpool began – fittingly enough – with a “Beatles Tour.” Since each of “The Fab 4” grew up in Liverpool, there is a lot of their history there. I have learned over the years that most songwriters get a wealth of material from their own natural surroundings and as we learned, The Beatles were no exception. So much of what influenced their music – and particularly Paul McCartney, the Beatles most prolific songwriter – was what happened around them on a daily basis, right where they grew up.

The band that was to turn popular music on end, “The Beatles,” was set and its members: “The Fab 4,” were John, Paul, George, and Ringo

John, Paul, George and Ringo were all heavily influenced by “Skiffle” music, a style of music comprised of jazz, blues and folk music, which had become wildly popular in Europe in the 1950s. Each were in some type of “Skiffle Band,” early on. Influenced by his

Our guide Eddie, met us just inside the port, in one of the little black “taxis” that seem to be the norm in Britain. Laying out this blog logically has been a bit of a challenge for me, as we did not necessarily visit each site in any logical order (I expect some of it was geographical and some of it was our guide’s local knowledge of when the best time to hit a spot was).

Liverpool University Student Housing
Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

John Lennon; Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr and George Harrison all grew up in Liverpool, we saw the boyhood homes of each of them. And while each had their own unique contribution to The Beatles, John and Paul had perhaps the most significant influence. The Beatles would likely never have been, had the two of them not met first, and begun making music. We began our day with a stop at what is now Liverpool University student housing, but was historically the maternity hospital where John Lennon was born.

Liverpool University
Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

John’s parent’s split when he was a relatively young boy, and there was, it seems, some question by many, whether his mother, Julia, was capable of raising him. There was a fair amount of instability in John’s early upbringing, and he eventually went to stay – more or less permanently – with his Aunt Mimi and Uncle George Smith. They were stable, if not practical folk. Mimi had a considerable say and influence in John’s upbringing, but Julia maintained and influence, visiting John frequently at Mimi’s home, and John frequently visiting her. It was Julia who purchased John’s first guitar, knowing that Mimi would not approve of such foolishness and would urge John to do something more practical that would allow him to earn a living. Julia taught him about art and music, and encouraged that side of him. Tragically, Julia was killed by a car while walking home from the Smith home one evening following a visit with John in 1958. John was 16 at the time.

The Home Of Mimi and George Smith
Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

By late 1956, John had formed his first band, The Quarrymen (named after his High School: Quarry Bank High School). They played skiffle and rock and roll, and were comprised, loosely of other boys who attended St. Peter Church and/or Quarry Bank High).

Brian Epstein Apartment
Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

John’s first wife, Cynthia, was an art student at Liverpool College of Art. The two of them met there in the late 1960, and sometime in 1969, she moved in with him at his Aunt Mimi’s home. In 1962, she became pregnant with Julian and they were married shortly after the discovery. When they were married, the band was just getting some notoriety, and their agent did not want the world to know of the marriage, so he let John and Cynthia use the apartment shown here to live when they were in Liverpool.

Liverpool Institute High School For Boys
Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

We also visited the Liverpool Institute High School For Boys, where Paul McCartney and George Harrison attended for short periods and became friends. Not necessarily connected to The Beatles, the suitcase sculptures are unique and are a tourist attraction in this part of the city.

“Luggage” Sculpture
Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

During a performance, affiliated with John’s church, St. Peter’s Church, John was introduced by a mutual friend, to Paul, who was invited to play along with the band. Shortly afterward, he asked Paul to join the Quarrymen. The band took a turn in direction away from skiffle and country influence and more hard toward rock and roll, obtaining a manager (Brian Epstein) and a few of the old Quarrymen fell away from the band, preferring the prior music to the new direction. McCartney recommended his friend George Harrison to be the lead guitarist. Lennon thought that Harrison, only 14, was too young, but McCartney persuaded John to give him a chance. Sometime in 1959 – 1960, Lennon, McCartney, Harrison and Stuart Sutcliffe became “The Beatles”. In 1960, Pete Best joined them as their drummer. In the beginning, the band changed the name from the Quarrymen to “Johny and the Moondogs.” But the group was heavily influenced by Buddy Holly. At least one source suggests that they took on the name “The Beetles” (originally, the “Silver Beetles”) because of Buddy Holly’s band: “The Crickets.” Somewhere along the line, it is said that Lennon changed the spelling to incorporate the word “beat” into the name. At any rate, by the early 1960, the name of the band was “The Beatles” and its history was set.

Performance Hall
St. Peter’s Church
Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The original Beatles group, a fivesome made up of Lennon, McCartney, Harrison, Sutcliffe and Best, went to Hamburg to play some gigs there. A couple times, another Liverpool native, Richard Starkey (Ringo Starr), filled in for Best because he was unavailable. The reason permanent changeover from Best to Starr is unclear, but during that period in Hamburg, and at the time they went to record their first album, Best was no longer with the band and Ringo was. Also during that time, Sutcliffe decided to leave the band and return to Liverpool School of Art, to finish his art education and pursue art as a career. Tragically, in 1962, Sutcliffe developed a brain tumor and died.

St. Peter’s Church
Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The band that was to turn popular music on end, “The Beatles,” was set and its members: “The Fab 4,” were John Paul, George and Ringo. While already wildly popular in Europe, their seminal moment, and one of, if not the most important moment in the history or rock and roll music, was on February 9, 1964, when they made their first appearance on American Television on the extremely popular Ed Sullivan Show. They played 5 songs that night before a television audience estimated at 73 million and the rest is, as they say: “history.”

Penny Lane
Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

In keeping with my comment that surroundings influenced their work, here is a musical “earwig” that is bound to stay with you for a while after reading this. We visited the namesake for one of the most famous McCartney written songs: Penny Lane. As you can see, it is a rather unassuming, quiet suburban street.

Paul McCartney Signature
2018 – 2019?
Penny Lane
Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

But some of you might remember watching a James Corden “Carpool Karaoke” special a year or so back, where James and Paul take one of James’ semi-famous rides around Liverpool together, and stop at some of the same stops our tour did, including Paul’s boyhood home, and of course the street sign for Penny Lane. We watched it, not knowing at the time that we would be at that very place one day in the very near future. We watched Paul sign it, and I was able to capture that signature shortly after he did that. One funny passage from that was when Paul mentioned that he and John wrote “She Loves You Yeah, Yeah, Yeah. They tried it out on Paul’s father, and his comment was couldn’t you say “She Loves You Yes, Yes, Yes.”? They said no. It makes you think about what one word can mean in a song. I commend you to see the movie, “Yesterday.” Not only was the music (and story) wonderful, but there is another similar “word” moment, involving the song “Hey Jude” ( I won’t give it away – but its awesome).

So. That Earwig? There was a commercial intersection near where Paul McCartney lived, that he frequented in his travels about the city. It isn’t Penny Lane, but its a much more interesting name. The rest is pretty real, though. “On Penny Lane there is a barber showing photographs ……

On Penny Lane there is a Barber Shop
Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The barbershop is right across from the “shelter on the roundabout” on the same street . . . . . . . (now a restaurant called St. Pepper Bistro,”). I looked but did not see the pretty nurse selling flowers. 🙂

The Shelter in the middle of the Roundabout
Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

I am sure there was a busy banker or two there somewhere, as this was in a little corner off a very busy couple of city streets. The firehouse was a ways down the street, and though it was still there, it is closed and is no longer a firehouse so, alas, no clean fire engine to be seen! But after seeing these, you can’t help but have that song in your ear, and a context for the lyrics.

Paul McCartney’s boyhood home
Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Paul was born a couple years after John Lennon, in Walton Hospital in Liverpool. One of three children, Paul was influenced by his father, Jim, who was a professional musician who played the trumpet and piano. He had his own jazz band (Jim Mac’s Jazz Band). What you hear about most journeymen musicians has some truth to it. They are not generally wealthy, and Paul’s nurse mother was said to be the family’s primary bread winner. Nonetheless, Jim encouraged all his children to play music and kept an upright piano in the living room of their family home. While it is difficult to get to see the inside of the home(s) (we were told that showings can be done through the Liverpool Trust), I once again, remembered, rather vividly, the James Corden show in which he and Paul went into the home and Paul sat at the piano and played. We got to see the outside.

Strawberry Field
Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Another place Paul remembered rather vividly as a child was a youth home named Strawberry Field. His memories of the children and his longing to play with him partly inspired his “Strawberry Fields for Ever.” The red gate and fence is historically authentic. Currently, the Salvation Army has put many dollars into restoration and maintenance, but it is said that it is possible to buy bricks from the gate. Note the many signatures of Beatles fans.

Strawberry Field
Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

George Harrison may have been the most private of the Beatles. It was a surprise to me to learn through my research that George was responsible for getting the band many of its performances and contracts and may have been the most businesslike of the 4 of them also. Born in Liverpool, George attended the Liverpool Institute High School for Boys for 4 years. He was always interested in guitars, and his father – though skeptical of its utility for George’s future – bought George his first guitar. George attributed his beginning interest in rock and roll to Elvis Presley. We saw his boyhood home, but it was neither remarkable, nor particularly well kept up by its current owners. For some reason, it does not seem to be the tourist attraction that the other 3 homes are. Not as prolific a writer as Paul, John or even Ringo, he was the author of their hit, “Here Comes The Sun.” Not much else was devoted to George during the tour.

George Harrison’s boyhood home
Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Richard Starkey was the oldest of the group, born in Liverpool in 1940. Apparently, the Starkeys were avid dancers and spent a lot of time in ballrooms, prior to Richard’s birth. After his birth, his mother stopped dancing and spent her time raising Richard, who was afflicted with an illness. His father, however, apparently couldn’t get it out of his system and his many after hours of dancing and drinking probably were the prime contributor to the Starkey’s splitting in 1944. No longer able to afford the rent in their current home on Madryn Street, Elsie and Richard moved into what was Richard’s home for his remaining boyhood in a neighborhood known as Admiral Grove. Richard’s mom, Elsie lived there until the Beatles moved to London in 1963. The home was public housing owned by Liverpool. After Elsie and Richard moved out, another Admiral Grove Resident was moved into the house during a period of rehabilitation of the Admiral Groves Homes. Margaret Grose became a lifetime Beatles fan and instead of growing weary of the visitors daily outside the home, she invited them in – for a small fee – which she gave to charity. She also maintained the home as it was when the Starkeys lived there. Margaret died in 2016, and another fan purchased the home, which still stands, intact, today.

Ringo Starr’s Boyhood Neighborhood
Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Ringo Starr’s Boyhood Home
Admiral Grove
Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

In 1954, when Richard was 13, Elsie married Harry Graves, who was a big fan of big band music, and introduced Richard to it. In 1957, Harry gave Richard a second-hand drum set for Christmas. I was intrigued to learn that, left-handed, Ringo had to learn a number of things “backward” including rolloff progressions, which later became notable as a unique style and added to Starr’s fame. He played in several bands, eventually finding his way to a Liverpool group called Rory Storm and the Hurricanes. The Hurricanes eventually accepted a “residency” in Hamburg and it was on the Hamburg music scene that Ringo met and eventually became the drummer for The Beatles.

Ringo was know for his quirky turn of a phrase, like: “It was a hard day’s night.”

Ringo, in addition to drumming, was lead singer in several Beatles Hits, including “With a little help from my Friends,” and “Yellow Submarine.” His own more prolific songwriting came perhaps later, after the band split up, in his own solo career, including hits such as “It Don’t Come Easy,” “Your 16,” and “Back Off Booglaloo.” But he was surely a contributor to some of the Beatles most memorable songs, particularly in names and lyrics. Ringo had a unique and often off-kilter turn of the phrase and is credited for the phrase “hard day’s night” which prompted Lennon to write the song, as well as becoming the Title of their 3rd record. He was also credited with helping fill in the lines in the famed “Eleanor Rigby” with Father McKenzie “darning his socks in the night.” And there is that “surroundings” thing again. We visited St. Peter’s Church, including the small graveyard inside the walls. Guess who we found?

Eleanor Rigby’s husband’s gravestone
Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

As our tour came to an end, I found myself much more a fan of the Beatles music than I have been previously. My generation, of course, grew up with this music, but it was pretty interesting to put the development of the music and the early lives of the band members into a perspective. Like almost every successful band, they eventually came to an end. The stories are similar. The personalities – probably more John and Paul had differences in direction and leadership thoughts. They all had at least some aspirations for solo careers. McCartney and Starr especially, went on to have very successful secondary careers. Lennon and Harrison perhaps less so, but still very successful. Lennon and Harrison also unfortunately met with tragic endings. But I, for one, am glad to have had Wings and Ringo’s All Starr Bands, to entertain us into the foreseeable future. Obviously whole books have been written on this subject. My “musings” are just that. Probably mostly historically accurate – but not guaranteed to be so. I encourage you to do some digging on your own, if you are interested.

Meanwhile back on Penny Lane ……….. (I didn’t want you to lose the earwig) 🙂

Whew. Long post – sorry. I know that the original idea of a Blog was short, punchy, regularly added material. Mine has never been that way. They are all long. This one may have been the longest ever. And I couldn’t even scratch the surface. I wanted it to reflect my own personal visit to Liverpool, illustrated by photos I felt motivated to make. I hope it succeeded.

There is so much that could have been touched on: the friendship and eventual friction between John and Paul; the reputed awful way John treated Cynthia and Julian, the dispute over who really wrote the songs – especially the early “Lennon/McCartney” signed ones; the drugs; Ringo’s real last name; George’s cancer; John’s activism and tragic death; but I wanted to leave that to the more serious writers and chroniclers.

I just watched the U-Tube James Corden piece again, and it was even better because I was there at those places. I encourage you to take a few minutes and watch it and it may even bring a tear or two (you can skip through the ads).

 

 

Liverpool; Not JUST the Birthplace of “The Beatles”

Liverpool Port
Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Interestingly, our cruise was labeled a “British Isles” Cruise. Yet it was a 12 day cruise in which we really technically only spent 3 days in the UK. We also spent another 4 days in The Republic of Ireland. While it might be appropriate to call the Island of Ireland “The British Isles,” I think the majority of them would disagree.

The Vooo Lounge
Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Be that as it may, with our pre-cruise days in and around Dublin, we certainly spent over half of our time in Europe in Ireland and Britain. The day following our Northern Ireland adventure, we sailed across the Irish Sea, to Liverpool, England. Perception often varies from reality, and my (admittedly ignorant) opinion of Liverpool was no exception. For my Michigander friends, I was thinking Flint (sorry to you Flintstones 🙂 ); to a perhaps broader audience, Newark (no, not Ohio 🙂 ). But I was wrong (as perhaps a visit to either Newark or Flint with one “in the know” might also prove).

Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The primary focus of our day at shore was, not surprisingly, a several hour-long “Beatles” tour. But we were to also learn that Liverpool was an important seaport (particularly historically), and a rather thriving city, with some very impressive architecture, and an active pub and distillery culture.

Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Granted “borough” status by King John in 1207, it did not obtain its British City Charter 1880. Liverpool replaced nearby Chester, which was on the River Dee and further inland, as the major port for world trade with Britain, around 1207 ant thereafter was Britain’s primary northern port. During the Industrial Revolution, it served as a port and became a first-world manufacturing city. Liverpool also served as the point of departure for British and Irish Emmigrants – mostly to the U.S. In earlier times, Liverpool Port played a significant role in the Atlantic Slave Trade. While probably not among its prouder historical accomplishments, the result was a very diverse city, including not only influence from Ireland and Wales, but the largest black population, and oldest Chinese population in Europe. Trade with the West Indies eventually exceeded trade with Ireland and other parts of Europe, and in 171, the first commercial “wet” dock was built in Liverpool.

Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The ensuing growth and the industrial revolution soon made Liverpool one of the wealthiest communities in Europe, its wealth surpassing that of London a number of times during the early 19th century.  In the 180s the city was often referred to as “the New York of Europe,” and was a sought-after destination well into the early 20th century, attracting immigrants from across Europe. During the Second World War, Liverpool became a critical strategic point. The city was heavily bombed by the Germans, suffering a blitz second only to London’s. The “Battle of the Atlantic,” which proved to be a turning point in the war, was planned, fought and won from Liverpool. Most of the U.S. Troops brought into the European theatre were brought through Liverpool Port.

Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Sadly, in the 1970s, largely due to significant changes in the shipping of cargo world-wide, Liverpool began a decline, and for a period had one of the largest unemployment rates in the world. Resilient, however, in the late 20th century, the Liverpool economy began to improve and has been on the upward curve ever since. As you drive through the city, it impresses you as a very middle to upper middle class city in places. With a population nearing 1/2 million, it is hard to believe that its population was only around 500 in the 1700s.

Ma Edgerton’s Pub
Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Our visit was focused heavily on The Beatles history. That deserves its own blog, which will come next time. After our tour, we spent some time in the very cool main Railroad Station, a couple of downtown pubs, including the Liverpool Gin Distillery, and The Alchemist (a unique UK chain originating in London, where food and mixology meet), before boarding our ship again in to return to the Island of Ireland.

Liverpool, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019