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The French Riviera – Nice

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Nice, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

No, that is not a play on words. 🙂 It is fair to say, though, that Nice is indeed, “nice.” Our next port of call was Monte Carlo, in Monaco, along the French Riviera. We had a long day there with our tour guide taking us to Nice, Eze, and Monaco. There is enough material here for 3 posts, so I will cover only Nice in this first installment. Monte Carlo is not a deepwater port and cruise ships (except for the very small ones), must anchor out and tender their passengers in. As we were to learn a day later, depending on the weather, this can be a challenge. In our case, the seas were calm and our French guide met us on shore where the tender landed.

It is fair to say, though, that Nice is indeed, “nice”

Whenever I have heard the term “French Riviera,” (or just “the Riviera”), I have thought of the south coast of France, and notably, places like Monte Carlo, San Tropez, and Cannes. I never gave much thought to the word, its meaning, or its origins. Until our guide asked us what “riviera” meant. At the end of or cruise, we were headed to what has been referred to in our cruise literature as “The Italian Riviera.” I thought it was simply their way of saying: “hey, our Mediterranean coast is pretty spectacular too.” 🙂

Nice, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Our guide informed us (nobody in our group seemed to know) that the word “riviera,” meant “where the mountains meet the sea.” My later research concludes that it is more general than that and refers to coastline (though most of the places it is used are certainly mountainous). And, it appears that the word “riviera,” is actually an Italian word. The French are more likely to refer to this spectacular area along the southern coast of France, as “Cote’ de Azur,” (or the Azure Coast). And from what we could see, when the sun shines, the Mediterranean is certainly a splendid azure color.

Nice, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

There appears to be no lack of scenic seaports and spectacular view along this coast and I would like, someday, to explore much more of it. For this day, we only had time for Nice and Monte Carlo. As we drove out of Monaco and into France, toward Nice, we passed the picturesque coastal town of Villefranche. We drove by and there was no opportunity to photograph or explore, but it went onto my checklist of places to visit.

Nice, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Originally settled by Greeks around 350 BC,  the first settlement was called Nikaia (after the Greek god, Nike). At some point Nice became the part of Sardinia (an island slightly smaller than Sicily; now a political region of Italy). Thus its roots are substantially Italian and the Italian language was once its official language. Ownership see-sawed back and forth between France and Italy until the mid 1800’s, when it became – more or less permanently – French.

Nice, France
Copyright, Andy Richards

Nice is strategically located on the Cote’ de Azur, just 8 miles from Monaco, and only about 20 miles from the French/Italian border. It sits at the southern base of The Alps, making it a sought-after location for outdoor enthusiasts of all descriptions, as well as a popular mediterranean winter and vacation destination. In the late 1800’s, Nice began to catch the attention of an increasing population of Enlish aristocrats, who began to winter there.

Nice, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Along the seacost, there is a wide promenade, known as “Promenade des Anglais” (the walkway of the English), largely because of this large influx of English citizens (and of course, their currency). I am certain that many remember the evening of July 14, 2016, when a large cargo truck hurtled into crowds of people celebrating Bastille Day on the Promenade des Anglais. This senseless and horrific attack resulted in the deaths of 86 people and the injury of 458 others. Unfortunately, like many other strategically located European destinations, Nice was no stranger to terrorist attacks. In 2003 double bombs were set off in Nice’s regional directorates of customs and the treasury, injuring sixteen people. I fear that these misguided and truly senseless actions will not go away in my lifetime. As we travel in Europe, we are ever mindful (and often reminded) of the potential for unrest and possibly violence.

Promenade des Anglais;
Nice, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

As we walked along the old streets our guide pointed out some landmarks and characteristics of old Nice. La Maison Auer was reputed to be British Queen Victoria’s favourite (see what I did there? 🙂 ) Chocolate Shop. Inside was very small, but with a generous selection of confections. We didn’t succumb to temptation (mainly because the tempuratures make it difficult to preserve it during the remainder of the day).

La Maison Auer Chocolate Shop;
Nice, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

We also learned that when many of the old buildings were constructed, owners did not always have the economic ability to install windows, balconies or doors on the building sides, and in an attempt to make it look stately, many of them were painted on, as seen in this building.

Nice, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The seventh largest city in France (and second only to Marseilles along the French Riviera), Nice has a population of about 1 million. We saw very little of what must be a relatively large geographical municipality. Because of its continued popularity as a vacation and tourist destination, Nice’s airport is the third busiest in France, only after the two Parisian airports.

Nice, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

We spent our entire time there in the part of the city known as “Old Nice.” You would never dream that this was part of a 1 million population city. There is an engaging outdoor produce and flower market that stretches several blocks down the main street. On review, my images of the market were made mostly in poor light (and after the shots taken in other cities of the world – notably Venice – seem like more of the same, so my only image to show is the stack of flowers seen here).

Outdoor Market
Nice, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

 

 

Nice, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

There were, as has been our experience in most of Europe, many old streets with old architecture. The old city is clean, and seems safe. We walked around, spent some time at the market, and then took a break for some cappucino at a street front cafe along the market place before heading to our next destination, the medieval city of Eze.

Nice, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Mid-morning, our guide turned us loose for some time to explore on our own. After walking the streets for a bit, we found a cafe on the street next to the marketplace for some cappucino, wifi, and people watching. It seemed like a nice, quiet place to have a cup, and catch up. Do people actually read the paper these days? 🙂

Nice, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

 

Our Return to Barcelona

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Port of Barcelona
Barcelona, Spain
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

In 2015, we started a Mediterranean Cruise in Barcelona. It was our first cruise with our friends, Paul and Linda, and we had a lot of fun, getting to know each other even better, and seeing the sights and enjoying the food an drink along the way. We would cruise again together, soon. As we like to do, we flew into Barcelona, a couple days early, spending 2 nights in a hotel in the heart of Barcelona, along Avenue Diagonal, not far from the bustling “heart” of Barcelona’s Gothic Center.

Park Guell
Barcelona, Spain
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Our trip, unfortunately, began with some rainy weather, and our scheduled trip to Park Guell, a UNESCO “Cultural Heritage of Humanity,” was pretty much a washout.  Park Guell was originally founded by wealthy Barcelona resident in 1900, Eusebi Guell, to build what perhaps we would today call a “suburban planned development,” away from the metropolis of Barcelona. Friends with famed and popular Barcelona architecht, Antoni Gaudi, Guell commissioned Gaudi to design the park. The Park originally provided for 60 small building plots on which Guell envisioned English Estate style estate homes would be built. In addition, there would be a marketplace, a large viaduct to bring water, buildings to house carriages and vehicles, a common field for athletic and other activities, all in a very nature-oriented park-like setting. By 1914, it had become evident to the developers that the project was not economically viable. After Guell’s death the city of Barcelona purchased the grounds and in 1926, opened it as a park. Only two homes would ever be built. The other buildings were mostly completed or in various stages.

Park Guell
Barcelona, Spain
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Shortly after we arrived in the park in 2015, the skies opened up and a torrential downpour ensued. Huddled with perhaps several hundred other visitors under the roof of the marketplace, we watch rivers of water run down the stairs. It became quickly obvious to us that this would not be our day in the park. So in 2015, we again scheduled a visit, with a guided tour of the grounds. The tour was very interesting and I would recommend it-and a visit to the park-to anyone visting Barcelona. However, I quickly discovered it was not very amenable to serious photography. There were crowds, protective railings, construction, and many naturally obstructed views. If you are spending time in Barcelona, I would rate this as a medium on your “must-see” things to do (especially if you are interested in Antoni Gaudi). But photographically, plan for a few snapshots and just enjoy the visit to the park and learning experience. :-).

Mosaic Tiles
Park Guell
Barcelona, Spain
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

We were docked in Barcelona overnight, so we booked a walking history/tapas tour of the Gothic quarter. We recalled fondly, the tapas walking tour we took back in 2015 and were really looking forward to this one. Unlike our prior tour, it has a nice mix of history of the Gothic part of the old city, and food and drink. The Gothic Quarter is, we are told, where pretty much everything in terms of the social, bar, restaurant and entertainment experience happens in Barcelona. Walking around that evening, in addition to tasting some pretty good tappas foods and wines, we saw a lot of really inviting small restaurants along the quiet side streets. It really looks like we will need to go back and do some bar-hopping and eating there. I have always been impressed with how cities like Barcelona and Venica have managed to mix modern societal demand with the old Gothic traditions and architecture.

Montserrat
Barcelona, Spain
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Montserrat
Barcelona, Spain
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Partly because we had been to Barcelona for a few days previously, we decided to join a tour outside of the city, to Montserrat, a Benedictine Abbey which is set some 4000 feet about sea level, the highest point near Barcelona. According to the website, Wikitravel, Monserrat is perhaps the most important religious retreat in Catalonia, and groups of young people from throughout the region make overnight hikes at least once in their lives to watch the sunrise from the heights of Montserrat. The peak can be reached by funicular from the Abbey and the views are said to be spectacular. During this trip, we visited a couple Monasteries. When I read about Montserrat being referred to as an Abbey, I became curious. Perhaps the devout Catholics among you already knew this, but even after living 62 plus years, having various college degrees, being reasonably well-read and traveled, I did not know the difference between a Monastery and an Abbey. Wikipedia, once again, to the rescue 🙂 . An Abbey is a complex of buildings, whereas a monastery is generally one building. When you visit Montserrat, it becomes obvious, as there is much more than just a cathedral and/or housing for the monks.

View from Montserrat
Barcelona, Spain
Copyright ANdy Richards 2019

We were there during some significant demonstrations by a group espousing Catalonian independence (from Spain and from the European Union), which was causing severe and possibly dangerous travel conditions, and our tour guide was understandably nervous about the situation. He cut our tour short and we did not have time to take the funicular, or to see all of the other things there, including a museum and the famed “Black Madonna.” Montserrat (meaning “serrated mountains”) is also said to house the oldest (still working) publishing house in the world. We know we will be back to Barcelona in the future and we agreed we will take another day to visit Montserrat again; hopefully at greater leisure. We did have the pleasure of hearing the boy’s choir, a relatively famous choir, sing before we departed. But for this time, our guide proved to be prescient. We arrived back at the ship around 3:00 p.m. and joined some newfound friends on the back deck bar. Only shorly after (mabye an hour) some other new friends arrived and told us of their adventures on shore. We had just missed complete traffic gridlock by a half hour.

Port of Barcelona
Barcelona, Spain
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The overnight docking gave a rare opportunity to do some night and very early morning shooting.

Port of Barcelona
Barcelona, Spain
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Port of Barcelona
Barcelona, Spain
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Barcelona has a lot to offer, and is a draw for us and we know we will be back to spend more time there in the near future.

Next Stop: Mallorca

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Peurto de Palma
Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Our next port of call was the Mallorcan city of Palma (Palma de Mallorca). Malllorca (Catalonian)or Majorca (English), is Latin for (and very loosely translated) the larger island (major). Mallorca is the largest island (and the second most populous) island of the Spanish Islands in the Mediterranean. European government is much older than our system of states in the U.S. There is significanly more history involved in them too – thousands of years (instead of a couple hundred in the U.S.). Spain is divided up into a number of “autonymous regions,” This apparently means at least a certain degree of self governance, while still being part of the Nation of Spain. Mallorca is part of the autonymous region called The Balearic Islands.

Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

From our travels we have learned that the Mediterranean region has seemingly endless islands that are very popular tourist and vacation destinations for citizens throughout Europe. The wonderful climate and geography certainly combines to make that the case. And Mallorca is clearly another favorite vacation destination for Europeans – with it share of pretty wealthy citizens. It is notable that the Spanish Royal Family maintains a vacation Palace there. We saw evidence of this wealth both in the port and in many of the homes in the City of Palma. Of course there were also many more indicators of moderate income citizens. We really only saw the city center, near the port.

Port of Palma
Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Our tour for the day involved a trip to Valldemossa, and then just a visit to the Cathedral de Mallorca. Afterward, we walked around the city center, and stopped to eat in one of the side-street restaurants, sampling the local version of tapas.

Village of Valldemossa
Mallorca, Spain
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Valldemossa is a village in Mallorca, dating back before the 13th century. It is perhaps most noted for the Carthusian Monastery (The Valldemossa Charterhouse) built in the 13th century. The monastery was originally built as a royal palace. In 1399 it was converted into a monastery by the Carthusian Monks.

Charterhouse, Valldemossa
Mallorca, Spain
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

The Charterhouse was known as a place of refuge. In 1838, composere and musician, Frederic Chopin, who was ill, traveled to Mallorca on the advice of his doctors, for a climate less harsh than his native Poland. After having difficulty finding quarters in Palma, he ultimately spent a winter (1838-39) in Valledmossa, living in part of the Charterhouse, with his mistress, the French writer, Amantine-Lucile-Aurore Dupin (perhaps better known by her pseudonmym, “George Sand”).

Depiction of Monk at Work
Charterhouse
Valldemossa, Mallorca
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Much of the Monastery today, houses historical information about Chopin. At the time, it was widely believed that Chopin suffered from Tuberculosis, and the local residents gave him a rather wide berth and cool reception. Chopin did compose a substantial amount of music while in residence there. Today, there is a daily piano performance of his music, which we were able to enjoy.

Sanctuary
Valldemossa, Mallorca
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

I was able to find some nice “small spaces” to photograph in and around the Monastery.

Monastery Courtyard
Valldemossa, Mallorca
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Monastery Garden
Valldemossa, Mallorca
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Monastery Grounds
Valledemossa, Mallorca
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Monastery
Valldemossa, Mallorca
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

After touring the Monastery, we spent some free time along the little village streets and enjoyed some local cappucino and Ensaïmada, a traditional sweet bread which is very popular on Mallorca.

Cafe, Valldemossa
Mallorca, Spain
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Valldemossa
Mallorca, Spain
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Residences
Valldemossa, Mallorca
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

We traveled back to Palma, to visit the Catedral de Palma, a Catalan Gothic style Cathedral. The cathedral was begun by King James I of Aragon in 1229, on the site of a Moorish-era mosque. It is an impressive structure, and one of the largest Gothic cathedrals in Europe. Like so many of the cathedrals we have visited in Europe, the Catedral de Palma was a work-in-progress. Not completed until 1601, a restoration was begun in the mid-1800’s. After some 50 years of “restoration,” it was still incomplete, and the owners contracted with famed Barcelona architect, Antoni Gaudi to complete the work. It is very interesting to tour this cathedral and see the original Gothic architecture, the more modern European modified “Gothic” work, and the unique influences of Gaudi. As I wrote shortly after our 2015 Barcelona visit, Gaudi’s work embraced nature and natural shapes and forms. Looking at his works in Barcelona, it difficult to fine a straight line anywhere. Some of this is evident in very subtle ways in the Catedral de Palma. In 1914, Gaudi abandonned the project, after an argument with the contractor. There may have been some egos involved. 🙂

Catedral de Palma
Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Catedral de Palma
Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

After walking the city streets for a while, we stopped for lunch.

 

Palma de Mallorca
Mallorca, Spain
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

After lunch, we headed back to our ship, and on to our next destination: Barcelona. Our return after our extended visit there in 2015 was much anticipated and would prove to be an adventure.

Palma de Mallorca
Mallorca, Spain
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Here We Go Again: Capri, Italy

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Isle of Capri
Naples, Italy
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

We seem to have ramped up our travel. This was our second trip to Europe in just a few months, both in 2019. I think we are done for this year. 🙂

Isle of Capri
Naples, Italy
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

I suppose every one is different, but this was a different cruise for us. In all but 2 other instances (we are “seasoned” travelers now, with 9 cruises and 2 other trips abroad over that past few years), we had friends traveling with us. This time we struck out on our own. And this time, we had fun, making the acquaintance of a number of other couples, from Europe, Australia, and the U.S. We almost always have a full “event” schedule on these cruises. This time, although we did join a few tours, a lot of the time was spent exploring and wandering on our own. This was true in Capri (as it was at the end, in La Spezia).

Isle of Capri
Naples, Italy
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Isle of Capri
Naples, Italy
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

A number of our ports did not necessarily have major “destination” or “must-see” things, which made it perhaps more interesting. Our first port was Naples. We have spent a fair amount of time in Naples during each of our Mediterranean Cruises, and felt like we had seen the highlights, including the Amalfi Coast and Sorrento. We have not been to Pompei (maybe next time). But I had alway heard that the Isle of Capri was beautiful, as well as being a known playground for the so-called “rich and famous.” So I wanted to see what it was all about.

Isle of Capri
Naples, Italy
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Isle of Capri
Naples, Italy
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Isle of Capri
Naples, Italy
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

With no particular agenda, we bought ferry tickets and set out for Capri. The Island is really quite large, and we only saw a small part of it. Our ferry landed in the main marina for the island; Marina Grande. There is another marina on the south side of the Island called Marina Piccola, and though we saw views of it from up in Capri, we didn’t venture down there. The two primary village attractions on Capri are the villages of Capri and Anacapri. Not having made any transportation arrangements, our short, day visit didn’t allow us to visit Anacapri, though my research tells me it is more of the same: spectacular views and typical European construction. Originally settled by the Greeks (it later was at one point a French holding, and eventually restored to Italy/Sicily), it reminded me of the settlements on the Greek Isles.

Isle of Capri
Naples, Italy
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Isle of Capri
Naples, Italy
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Isle of Capri
Naples, Italy
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

One thing we did miss (poor research on my part) was the so-called “Phoenecian Steps,” a stairway from Marina Grande to the top, build many years back by the Greek inhabitants. They apparently start close to where we landed, and then end at the top, near the border between Capri and Anacapri. We will look for them next time.  🙂 While these steps would require a rather vigorous climb, the top is actually rather easily reached by riding the funicular ($2 Euros each way) to the to and the Pietta Funiculara, in the middle of the Village of Capri. We walked for a couple hours, without any plan, not really venturing far from the main part of the village. The walkways were steep and winding, with plenty of great views of the Gulf of Naples.

Isle of Capri
Naples, Italy
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Isle of Capri
Naples, Italy
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

I was not disappointed in my assessment of the village. In its heart, there were many high-end shops and restaurants. However, as we ventured of the main streets, we found many quiet and pretty scenes. Photographically, I think this trip was – in part – about finding unique scenes, and my image curating and processing is bearing that out. A large percentage of my shots are not “iconic,” but rather of quiet, discrete and pretty scenes I came upon as we wandered.

Isle of Capri
Naples, Italy
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Isle of Capri
Naples, Italy
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

It was (is) All About the Medium

Kodachrome 25; 1990s

For potentially bored readers, I have some good news. I just returned from another European trip in October, which means some new images again, rather than my historical stroll down memory lane. I am post-processing images right now. But first, another reminiscent post:

Kodachrome, was simply the standard by which any other choice was measured. And until the 1980’s they generally just didn’t measure up.

My “evolution” series got me thinking a bit about the medium. Those who have been shooting only during the past 20 years may be vaguely aware of an old cellulose material called film. When I jumped in, film was all we had, and the “pickins” were slim.  If you wanted to shoot color slides (the medium of choice, it seems, for serious “nature” photographers), you mainly had Kodak. There were competitors, but in the early years, Kodak dominated the film world, for a number of reasons. Most shops and retail stores stocked Kodak products.


In the Beginning, God created the Heavens and the Earth ….. and Kodachrome

Perhaps the most important reason was that Kodachrome, was simply the standard by which any other choice was measured. And until the 1980’s the others generally just didn’t measure up.

prior to about 1936, color photography was not prevalent among all but a limited group of professionals. Color wasn’t really that great (though it was relative, I suppose). Early results (including some early color slide films) are reminiscent of the early “colorized” movies we saw. We all knew it was black and white with some color added. In my mind, this was true until Kodachrome became the standard.

In 1936, a couple of musician-turned-scientists were hired by Eastman Kodak to complete their experimental process. As I did my research, I was interested to learn that there actually was another “Kodachrome,” which was a 2-color process, developed by a Kodak engineer in 1913. In 1936, Kodak introduced the 3-layer process which became the vaunted Kodachrome. Called a non-substantive film (an odd name in my view – but addressing the lack of dye or colorant “substances” in the film emulsion itself), the Kodachrome process was complex. It was essentially a B&W film, in which color dyes were added to the 3 different layers during the development process.

Fuji Velvia

This meant that a specialized processing setup was necessary, and until 1954, Kodak successfully maintained a monopoly on this process (known as K-14), by selling Kodachrome only with pre-paid processing by Kodak as part of the deal. In 1954, the United States challenged this practice as an anti-trust violation, and an agreement was entered into, among other things, ending this practice (and of course, allowing competitors to acquire the accoutrements to develop Kodachrome).

Originally, Kodachrome was released at ISO 10. A 20-exposure cassette cost $3.50. That, for those interested, would have been about $65.00 in 2019 dollars!

Kodak (Ektachrome) E100SW

In 1936, there was no ISO (or ASA, as it was originally known). During the World War, the military wanted a single standard to be able to increase their efficiency. Prior to this time, there were several standards (and thus, several different marketed light meters – all handheld in those days). The American Standards Association created a “standard” measurement for light sensitivity measurement, which then became known as the film’s “ASA,” or ASA rating. In 1987, the International Organization for Standardization was created and film manufacturers worldwide shifted to this international standard (which is numerically identical to the old ASA standard). So we now refer to light sensitivity measure – on all media – as “ISO.”


There were non-believers …

That same year (1936) German film and camera manufacturer, AGFA, introduced Agfacolor. While very similar to Kodachrome, including its three layer emulsion, AGFA engineers embedded color dyes into the film emulsion, making the development process less complex. I shot maybe one or two rolls of Agfacolor. Didn’t care for it. It looked, as I noted above, like lightly colorized black and white. It did seem to make a big hit in the motion picture industry, however, and was widely used in film-making for a number of years.

The Fujifilm company was established in Japan in 1934. I was not able to find much about early film offered by Fuji. Of course, they catapulted into top status with the release of Velvia, years later.

Fuji Velvia

Kodachrome II, was introduced in 1961, with an ASA/ISO rating of 25. In 1962, they a released 64 ASA version (later they simply became known as K-25 and K-64). In 2007, K-25 production was discontinued. K-64 production followed suit in 2009). One source noted that in 2009, sales of Kodachrome made up 1% of Kodak sales revenue. Kodak had essentially ceased processing Kodachrome themselves by 2006, and by 2010, the only one Kodak-certified facility remaining was Dwayne’s Photo, in Parsons, Kansas. Later that year the even they ceased Kodachrome processing. Which led me to wonder, what if I had any rolls of undeveloped Kodachrome? Some “Google” research will reveal that there are processors out there who claim to be able to process it. But I checked my freezer. No film of any kind in there. Phew! 🙂


Nothing lasts forever …

In addition to its complexity and considerable expense, there were other Kodachrome drawbacks. Transparencies were designed, of course, to be projected with a relatively strong light (anybody else remember those “travelogue” slide shows that were prevalent in the 1960s and 1970s?). The medium was consequently, relatively high contrast with lots of shadows. This made it particularly touchy to produce photographic prints from. And, we have learned in later years, the process of scanning and converting Kodachrome to digital images often is challenged by colorcasts which need to be addressed in the scanning process.

Stemming partly from photographers (particularly consumers) demand for cheaper and more convenient products, and also partly borne out of the 1954 antitrust decree directing Kodak to endeavor to release a newer, more consumer-friendly film that was in development, Ektachrome, with a new “E-process” in which dyes were embedded in the film emulsion was introduced in 1955. Originally ASA 32, a 160 version was introduced in 1959, and 64 and 100 ASA versions in 1977. I wasn’t even shooting yet! Two years after I got started, in 1979, Ektachrome 400 was released.

Kodak Elite Chrome 100

Ektachrome had some advantages. It was cheaper than Kodachrome and cheaper and easier to process. You could have it processed locally. If you wanted to make the investment in color processing equipment (essentially, some relatively affordable tanks and chemicals), you could process it yourself.

I shot very little of it. This was probably partly due to the prejudice I acquired early on, from my shooting inspiration. But there was also still no doubt that Kodachrome was still the professional-preferred medium for most. Ektachrome also had a known blue color cast, and I found it cool, and a bit less saturated than my personal taste. So, throughout the 1970’s and 1980’s I shot Kodachrome.

Kodak Elite Chrome II (50)

When I came back to serious shooting in the early 1990’s, the industry had changed. Fuji introduced its Velvia 50 in 1990. Its characteristic was a very colorful, saturated, and contrasty profile. It took aim at Kodachrome and punched it in the face. It quickly became the slide film of choice for nature photographers – especially for landscape and flowers. And it used the E-6 process (by this time virtually every emulsion used the E-6 process, except for Kodachrome).

Again, while there were others, there really weren’t 🙂 . Fuji and Kodak went head to head. Fuji released Velvia. Kodak parried with Lumiere 100 (a neutral balanced Ektachrome) and Lumiere 100X (a warm-saturated Ektachrome). Fujia added Velvia 100. Lumiere was short-lived and said by some to have some inconsistency in color from roll to roll. Kodak replaced it with E100S (saturated), E100SW (warm saturated) and E100VS (very saturated – Kodak’s answer to Velvia).

Kodak Elite Chrome II (100)

Fuji, in 2003, in response to criticism that Velvia was just too colorful (perhaps unrealistic to some), introduced Provia, in 100, 200, 400, and 1600 ISO versions, and  Provia F (ultra-fine grain).

These were all so-called “professional” films. They tended to be more expensive. Whether they were that much better is probably a personal judgment. They probably had better quality control. I remember going to my photo shop in my community to buy these films (they weren’t generally available in the big box and drugstores), and they were generally stored in refrigerated conditions.

To cater to consumers, both companies released (almost simultaneously) “consumer” versions of the above film varieties. Kodak’s Ektachrome became Elite Chrome, Elite Chrome II, and Elite Chrome Extra Color.

Fuji Sensia II

Fuji’s consumer version of Provia was Sensia, Sensia II, and Sensia III, in various ISO ratings. I am not aware that they ever marketed a consumer version of Velvia.

Interesting stuff for some of us, and by the mid-2000’s, essentially irrelevant to most of us. 🙂

Fuji Sensia II (100)

Before I did the research for this piece, I spent a few hours going through my archives to find examples of some of my images made with all of the above media. The problem is that it is truly impossible to make comparisons, here. This is partly because in order to do this on a blog, it became necessary at some point to convert all the media to one single media: digital. So this may not have been a very useful exercise – but it was fun doing it. Presented as digital media, I can see some nuances, but not any huge differences (of course, post processing software has “recipes” to “recreate” film “looks” in digital post-processing these days. I have done very little of that, except for B&W, and cannot really say how accurate they are). I did very little post-processing of the “film” images; just a bit of sharpening mainly. I would be interested if you can see any difference.

For me, digital processing made everything possible; digital capture made it much more convenient

 


And there shall come a Rapture …..

Digital shifted the focus (see what I did there?) from all of the considerations of film, down to one thing: the digital sensor. And it is all about the quality, sharpness, and resolving capability of those tiny little electronic chips. We moved from cost and technical ability to manufacture affordable digital sensors, to “size” matters, and then back again these days to the fact that maybe it doesn’t even matter so much any more.

Nikon D100 (2002)
6 megapixel – “APS”

The Purple Coneflower is one of my first flower images made with direct digital capture. As noted above, it is difficult to make useful comparisons with film. First, doesn’t scanning a film image convert it to a “digital” image? Then, once we get into the post-processing world, everything we once knew kind of goes out the window. We can post-process a film scanned image in much the same ways we can post-process a digital capture. It may be possible to capture “cleaner” images directly, but we still have to deal with “digital” grain (noise). Color rendering becomes pretty much what you want it to be. One interpretation of the coneflower, for example, is that it has a “color-cast.” This is purposeful on my part because I like the warm, saturated color in many of my more colorful “nature” images. But I did this (of course, you can inadvertently capture color-casts, but if you shoot in the raw format, you can almost always correct, or adjust it, as can be seen from the white daylily image made with the Nikon D200).

Nikon D200
10 Megapixel; APS

I had to laugh as I reviewed digital images in my Lightroom Catalog. I apparently have an affinity for lilies, probably because they are an easy, plentiful, and colorful subject (emphasis perhaps on “easy” 🙂 ). In any event, I have almost 400 lily images. The closest second is around 25.

We moved from cost and technical ability to manufacture affordable digital sensors, to “size” matters, and then back again these days to the fact that maybe it doesn’t even matter so much any more

When I shifted to digital, I was satisfied with what was available, but not completely happy that the sensors were still small. Size, with sensors, had at least three dimensions: actual physical sensor size, and pixel depth (the number of pixels on that space), and the actual physical size of each individual pixel. Obviously, they are interrelated. And in the beginning, this was a pretty big deal. Larger sensors and larger pixels could handle capture with less noise, at higher ISO levels and more detail. So, almost from the beginning, there were “pixel wars” between the purveyors of digital cameras. But also in the beginning, the successful manufacture and hence, availability of larger sensors was prohibitively expensive. Of course, the sensor size itself also effected the optics in a big way. The 35mm SLR camera had become the sort of “standard” by which most of this stuff was measured. But the affordable sensors at first were the so-called “APS” sized sensor, which is significantly smaller than the 35mm film rectangle we were used to, but as you can see by the gold rectangle below, much larger that what we first had with Point & Shoot cameras.

Sensor Sizes Compared

APS sensors meant that the lenses made for the 35mm perspective, did not work the same way. There were pros and cons (covered ad nauseum by others elsewhere). Because of the perceived combined “advantage” of a higher-quality capture and regaining the use, especially, of their wide angle lenses, many 35mm users almost immediately began to call for a so-called “full frame” sensor. I have always found this kind of illogical. What would a “medium format” (4 x 5 inch), or a full 8 x 10″ view camera user call a sensor made to their size? :-). But “full frame” caught on. I eventually jumped on that train, believing “full frame” capture was necessary for me to achieve the image quality I desired. I want to emphasize that there is certainly nothing negative about owning the larger sensor. There is little doubt that you can coax more out of it than the smaller sensors. But to me, it may have been the purchase of a dump truck, when a small pickup (or even a wheelbarrow) was sufficient. There are a couple factors – all empirical for me – that bring me to this conclusion.

D800 “full frame”

First, I had some personal experience. While I am not sure this is any longer true, at the time, to me the “holy grail” was the photographic print, on traditional photographic paper. I have owned a couple Epson printers that were capable of making inkjet prints that rivaled anything I had ever received from any lab. And, I was able to do my own “darkroom” adjustments. For economic reasons, the largest I generally made were 13 x 19″ prints, and that became my de facto standard for measuring quality. And while I enjoyed and appreciated my “full frame” Nikons, my “testing” didn’t prove out the benefit (for me) of the larger sensor (except, perhaps with its integration with some really fine pro- zoom lenses designed for 35mm).

Sony NEX APS
(equivalent to Nikon APS)

The real eye opener came some years later, when I made side-by-side images with my Sony “full frame” and my Sony RX100, and printed them. I could not see much difference. To be fair, much of what has gone on has been in the post-processing realm (both in terms of technology and my abilities). There have also been technology gains which have made the smaller sensor just that much better.

Sony NEX APS
Zeiss 50mm f1.8 lens

 

The red lily image illustrates this, I think. It prints beautifully as a 13 x 19. I believe it could easily print much larger with no noticeable degradation. It illustrates to me my earlier premise that resolving power, low light, and clean capture-capable sensors (regardless of size, and often regardless of the number of megapixels) has really become the “media” of today.

 

It’s All in Your Perspective

Tower Bridge
London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

During the past several years, I have migrated to smaller gear. Importantly, this has included the diminutive Sony RX100 camera. For the money, this may be the most versatile small travel camera on the market today (though the competition stiffens every year – which is a good thing 🙂 ; and there are a couple other systems – like the Olympus 4:3 outfit, and the Fujifilm XT series – that have a heavy pro following). But no matter what gear you might be carrying, or using, there are going to be compromises and things a particular “kit” is just not going to be able to handle. For me, with the gear I carry and the travel I do, it is more often than not, two things: “reach” and “perspective.”

The only way I know of to fix the “reach” issue is to add a heavy telephoto to the mix, or get closer (which isn’t always going to be an option). So I haven’t attempted to “fix” that. Rather, I am working around it as best I can. Perspective, however, I have learned, I can “fix.” Well, at least I can improve it in post-processing.

The only way I know to fix the “reach issue is to add a heavy telephoto … or get closer the subject

Perspective is, in some ways, the opposite problem of “reach.” It often involves being too close, or the lens being “too wide” (if that is possible 🙂 ). Sometimes the same solution can be applied; i.e., moving. For many years, very good photographers did not have the quality zoom lenses we have today and used to “zoom” with their feet. When possible, that is still excellent advice. But moving away from your subject creates new challenges. It makes the subject smaller in the frame. It introduces elements and obstructions into the image that you often do not want. And often the need is to get higher and that is not always possible. I love shooting landscape images (when I get the opportunity) from the top deck of the cruise ship because it aids in perspective for tall subjects by getting me higher. But walking around on location, I often do not have that luxury. If you can find a way to get higher, or have the opportunity to work and area and find higher viewpoints, seek them out.

Tower Bridge
London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

To try to ameliorate these issues, I have learned yet another virtue of post-processing software. Perhaps unfortunately, my usage will most center around Adobe’s products, because it is what I have and know. I have been impressed with the capabilities of other software – notably OnOne (which unfortunately, hasn’t worked well with my hardware), and am sure they all have built this feature in their software. It is worth exploring. This is not a full on tutorial. There are a ton of them out there already. This is really more designed to bring this issue to the reader’s attention and then encourage some exploring of your own.

Fixing perspective issues, I have learned, is yet another virtue of modern post-processing software

I have been able to remarkably improve the perspective on several of my travel images, mostly using the Transform Perspective tool in Adobe Photoshop. The Tower Bridge image was the most pronounced example I could find in my recent “take” of hundreds of images in the British Isles. We were on a “whirlwind” 4-hour tour of parts of London, and the bridge was not planned by our guide to be a part of the tour. But we cajoled him into getting us somewhere close enough to stop and photograph it. This is the location he go us too. This is obviously an image better shot from a distance, and because of the urban landscape, from somewhere high. But that wasn’t going to happen. When I got home, I was not surprised – but was still mildly disappointed with the results of my several images. But I went to work with Photoshop’s Transform Perspective tool, and the second image is my result. I believe it is much more pleasing.

Using the tool requires a combination of other tools, including some of Photoshop’s “content-aware” features, and other straightening tools. There is a bit of a learning curve. (for example, I had to learn that this tool does not operate on the background image, and you need to create a duplicate layer to do the corrections on, which is always a good practice anyway, for non-destructive editing). Also, perspective corrections also often change the aspect and scale of an image (stretching and/or squeezing), and there is a scale tool for working with those adustments. Something I find particularly useful in Photoshop, is to pull “guides” (horizontal and vertical lines) out from the margins around the areas I am trying to get horizontally or vertically level. Guides also help with correcting vertical perspective. In Adobe Light Room, you can use the Lens overlay feature to create (and scale) a grid overlay pattern on the image (although my brief expirimentation leads me to believe that is is not a versatile as the Transform Perspective Tool in Photoshop).

One important item to be aware of, is that all the above corrections will almost always result in the loss of some of your image (i.e., cropping). When shooting in these situations, it is wise to leave some space around the subject to allow for later cropping. One of the most useful editions to Photoshop in recent years is “content aware” technology. Content aware allows you to remove, replace, move and even crop items (without having to eliminate cropped elements), letting the Photoshop engine make its best “guess” at filling in the space based on the surroundings. It is certainly not perfect. But it is pretty surprisingly good, a lot of the time. Of course, it is nothing you couldn’t already do – manually – but it was painstaking enough that most of us just cropped the best we could, instead. To the best of my knowledge, the Content Aware feature is not yet available in Light Room. But in Photoshop, I can often use content aware cropping, content aware fill, or both, to retain elements of an image that would otherwise have been lost to cropping. Busy images do not work as well, but images with simple graphics or mono color (sky, grass, etc.) work well, often with little or no cleanup afterward.

I recently saw some images posted by another talented shooter taken with a wide-angle lens, that showed perspective distortion at the edges – a possible characteristic of wide-angle lenses with “grand landscape” type images. Reaching out to him, I learned he (like I would guess the majority of shooters today) uses Adobe’s Light Room (which has really been made and marketed to photographers). I am old school, and set in my ways (which may really just be another way of saying “lazy” :-)).

Eiffel Tower
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

But I do have Light Room, so I looked at it. The “Transform” tool performs a similar function (it is also resident in the ACR converter that I use to convert my raw images – which is supposed to be the same “engine” as Light Room). I imported the Eiffel Tower image into Light Room and used the Transform tool in the Develop Module to correct the perspective on this image. Fortunately, this one only required some mild vertical correction and the application of the sliders were pretty easy. In doing my research I found this really well-written article on how to accomplish perspective corrections in Light Room and Photoshop (although it is really most a Light Room article). Even if you use other post-processing software, there is useful information in this easy-to-read tutorial and I recommend reading it.

Amsterdam – UNRETOUCHED
Netherlands
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

I felt like it deserved a tougher test, so I took one of my poorly executed images through the same “hoops.” The Amsterdam image is obviously one where the shooter (yours truly) did not get his handheld image level in the camera to start with. But just making a quick “rotate” adjustment in any software reveals that there is more at issue here than just the level part (for what its worth, Photoshop has a “straighten” tool built into its cropping tool for fixing these types of issues. My experience has been that I get better results using guides and doing it myself, but YMMV). So, once again, I imported this image into Light Room, and went directly to the Transform Tool. I used the sliders for rotate, vertical and horizontal to get this one “right” (note that there is still a perspective issue on the wing to the left on the building – which may be fixable, but is beyond my talent level at the moment). There is also a slider for scale (you inevitably will get some cropping and may have to make an image smaller or even larger to fit the space properly and maintain all elements of the photo) and for adjusting aspect ratio. These same tools exist in ACR, but the Light Room implementation seems much more intuitive and easy to use. Either way, I think its pretty powerful stuff. Here is the result. I think it is much more pleasing than the original. I did my post-processing from start to finish in Light Room on this one.

Amsterdam
Netherlands
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Earlier, I emphasized “similar” because the Photoshop Transform and Light Room Transform tools are not exactly identical tools. I suspect the “engine” is the same under the hood, but the controls are very different. After some playing I came to the conclusion (based only on my own limited experience) that I was still getting my desired result more effectively using the Photoshop Transform Tools. One thing that the Photoshop tool has is something called “skew.” This allows a little more “freeform” correction, by adding a horizontal or vertical slant to the subject. I find that when I am having trouble matching the vertical perspective and the horizontal rotation, that this is very useful for changing the horizontal in the image without completely changing the vertical. Images like the Eiffel Tower image often present such challenges, and I did apply some skew transformation to several of my tower images on my website. I most certainly used it on the Tower Bridge image. I also think it is easier to minimize the loss of parts of the image from cropping using Photoshop. However, this tool often means using either creative cropping, content aware replacement, or some combination of both.

When shooting in these situations, it is wise to leave some space around the subject to allow for inevitable cropping

These tools require some ability with software, patience, and the willingness to work on post-processing to obtain a desired result. I appreciate that not everyone wants to do this. But I think that the results are often worth the effort. I have been using the Transform Perspective tool for a long time, now. But perhaps not to its best use. I encourage you to try some of these tools. Use non-destructive techniques, or at least, work on a copy of your original image, and don’t be afraid to play around. What is the worst you can do? And maybe learn something. I do almost every time I play around with a new tool.

It’s All in Your Perspective

Tower Bridge
London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

During the past several years, I have migrated to smaller gear. Importantly, this has included the diminutive Sony RX100 camera. For the money, this may be the most versatile small travel camera on the market today (though the competition stiffens every year – which is a good thing 🙂 ; and there are a couple other systems – like the Olympus 4:3 outfit, and the Fujifilm XT series – that have a heavy pro following). But no matter what gear you might be carrying, or using, there are going to be compromises and things a particular “kit” is just not going to be able to handle. For me, with the gear I carry and the travel I do, it is more often than not, two things: “reach” and “perspective.”

The only way I know of to fix the “reach” issue is to add a heavy telephoto to the mix, or get closer (which isn’t always going to be an option). So I haven’t attempted to “fix” that. Rather, I am working around it as best I can. Perspective, however, I have learned, I can “fix.” Well, at least I can improve it in post-processing.

The only way I know to fix the “reach issue is to add a heavy telephoto … or get closer the subject

Perspective is, in some ways, the opposite problem of “reach.” It often involves being too close, or the lens being “too wide” (if that is possible 🙂 ). Sometimes the same solution can be applied; i.e., moving. For many years, very good photographers did not have the quality zoom lenses we have today and used to “zoom” with their feet. When possible, that is still excellent advice. But moving away from your subject creates new challenges. It makes the subject smaller in the frame. It introduces elements and obstructions into the image that you often do not want. And often the need is to get higher and that is not always possible. I love shooting landscape images (when I get the opportunity) from the top deck of the cruise ship because it aids in perspective for tall subjects by getting me higher. But walking around on location, I often do not have that luxury. If you can find a way to get higher, or have the opportunity to work and area and find higher viewpoints, seek them out.

Tower Bridge
London, England
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

To try to ameliorate these issues, I have learned yet another virtue of post-processing software. Perhaps unfortunately, my usage will most center around Adobe’s products, because it is what I have and know. I have been impressed with the capabilities of other software – notably OnOne (which unfortunately, hasn’t worked well with my hardware), and am sure they all have built this feature in their software. It is worth exploring. This is not a full on tutorial. There are a ton of them out there already. This is really more designed to bring this issue to the reader’s attention and then encourage some exploring of your own.

Fixing perspective issues, I have learned, is yet another virtue of modern post-processing software

I have been able to remarkably improve the perspective on several of my travel images, mostly using the Transform Perspective tool in Adobe Photoshop. The Tower Bridge image was the most pronounced example I could find in my recent “take” of hundreds of images in the British Isles. We were on a “whirlwind” 4-hour tour of parts of London, and the bridge was not planned by our guide to be a part of the tour. But we cajoled him into getting us somewhere close enough to stop and photograph it. This is the location he go us too. This is obviously an image better shot from a distance, and because of the urban landscape, from somewhere high. But that wasn’t going to happen. When I got home, I was not surprised – but was still mildly disappointed with the results of my several images. But I went to work with Photoshop’s Transform Perspective tool, and the second image is my result. I believe it is much more pleasing.

Using the tool requires a combination of other tools, including some of Photoshop’s “content-aware” features, and other straightening tools. There is a bit of a learning curve. (for example, I had to learn that this tool does not operate on the background image, and you need to create a duplicate layer to do the corrections on, which is always a good practice anyway, for non-destructive editing). Also, perspective corrections also often change the aspect and scale of an image (stretching and/or squeezing), and there is a scale tool for working with those adustments. Something I find particularly useful in Photoshop, is to pull “guides” (horizontal and vertical lines) out from the margins around the areas I am trying to get horizontally or vertically level. Guides also help with correcting vertical perspective. In Adobe Light Room, you can use the Lens overlay feature to create (and scale) a grid overlay pattern on the image (although my brief expirimentation leads me to believe that is is not a versatile as the Transform Perspective Tool in Photoshop).

One important item to be aware of, is that all the above corrections will almost always result in the loss of some of your image (i.e., cropping). When shooting in these situations, it is wise to leave some space around the subject to allow for later cropping. One of the most useful editions to Photoshop in recent years is “content aware” technology. Content aware allows you to remove, replace, move and even crop items (without having to eliminate cropped elements), letting the Photoshop engine make its best “guess” at filling in the space based on the surroundings. It is certainly not perfect. But it is pretty surprisingly good, a lot of the time. Of course, it is nothing you couldn’t already do – manually – but it was painstaking enough that most of us just cropped the best we could, instead. To the best of my knowledge, the Content Aware feature is not yet available in Light Room. But in Photoshop, I can often use content aware cropping, content aware fill, or both, to retain elements of an image that would otherwise have been lost to cropping. Busy images do not work as well, but images with simple graphics or mono color (sky, grass, etc.) work well, often with little or no cleanup afterward.

I recently saw some images posted by another talented shooter taken with a wide-angle lens, that showed perspective distortion at the edges – a possible characteristic of wide-angle lenses with “grand landscape” type images. Reaching out to him, I learned he (like I would guess the majority of shooters today) uses Adobe’s Light Room (which has really been made and marketed to photographers). I am old school, and set in my ways (which may really just be another way of saying “lazy” :-)).

Eiffel Tower
Paris, France
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

But I do have Light Room, so I looked at it. The “Transform” tool performs a similar function (it is also resident in the ACR converter that I use to convert my raw images – which is supposed to be the same “engine” as Light Room). I imported the Eiffel Tower image into Light Room and used the Transform tool in the Develop Module to correct the perspective on this image. Fortunately, this one only required some mild vertical correction and the application of the sliders were pretty easy. In doing my research I found this really well-written article on how to accomplish perspective corrections in Light Room and Photoshop (although it is really most a Light Room article). Even if you use other post-processing software, there is useful information in this easy-to-read tutorial and I recommend reading it.

Amsterdam – UNRETOUCHED
Netherlands
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

I felt like it deserved a tougher test, so I took one of my poorly executed images through the same “hoops.” The Amsterdam image is obviously one where the shooter (yours truly) did not get his handheld image level in the camera to start with. But just making a quick “rotate” adjustment in any software reveals that there is more at issue here than just the level part (for what its worth, Photoshop has a “straighten” tool built into its cropping tool for fixing these types of issues. My experience has been that I get better results using guides and doing it myself, but YMMV). So, once again, I imported this image into Light Room, and went directly to the Transform Tool. I used the sliders for rotate, vertical and horizontal to get this one “right” (note that there is still a perspective issue on the wing to the left on the building – which may be fixable, but is beyond my talent level at the moment). There is also a slider for scale (you inevitably will get some cropping and may have to make an image smaller or even larger to fit the space properly and maintain all elements of the photo) and for adjusting aspect ratio. These same tools exist in ACR, but the Light Room implementation seems much more intuitive and easy to use. Either way, I think its pretty powerful stuff. Here is the result. I think it is much more pleasing than the original. I did my post-processing from start to finish in Light Room on this one.

Amsterdam
Netherlands
Copyright Andy Richards 2019

Earlier, I emphasized “similar” because the Photoshop Transform and Light Room Transform tools are not exactly identical tools. I suspect the “engine” is the same under the hood, but the controls are very different. After some playing I came to the conclusion (based only on my own limited experience) that I was still getting my desired result more effectively using the Photoshop Transform Tools. One thing that the Photoshop tool has is something called “skew.” This allows a little more “freeform” correction, by adding a horizontal or vertical slant to the subject. I find that when I am having trouble matching the vertical perspective and the horizontal rotation, that this is very useful for changing the horizontal in the image without completely changing the vertical. Images like the Eiffel Tower image often present such challenges, and I did apply some skew transformation to several of my tower images on my website. I most certainly used it on the Tower Bridge image. I also think it is easier to minimize the loss of parts of the image from cropping using Photoshop. However, this tool often means using either creative cropping, content aware replacement, or some combination of both.

When shooting in these situations, it is wise to leave some space around the subject to allow for inevitable cropping

These tools require some ability with software, patience, and the willingness to work on post-processing to obtain a desired result. I appreciate that not everyone wants to do this. But I think that the results are often worth the effort. I have been using the Transform Perspective tool for a long time, now. But perhaps not to its best use. I encourage you to try some of these tools. Use non-destructive techniques, or at least, work on a copy of your original image, and don’t be afraid to play around. What is the worst you can do? And maybe learn something. I do almost every time I play around with a new tool.